Earthwork is extremely important for civil construction, these are excavation services before the execution of buildings, drainage systems, pavements, for example, among others. This technique aims to plan and ground/cut any terrain prepared for the execution of services, such as those provided by Civil Earthworks, that demand it.
Do you know what terrain leveling and earthwork are?
Although it is possible to build a building anywhere, it is common and necessary to level the lot before the beginning of the work under any type of terrain. In the past, many buildings used the famous basements or buildings that were in some way by the unevenness of the land, but today this practice is not recommended; it is more common and safe to level and, thus, can raise the construction on flat ground. And this is where the earthwork comes in.
Earthwork means the act or effect of earthwork, filling with earth or making cuts in the spans of land to make it flat. It is a technique used in most civil constructions, whether small, medium, or large. It aims to improve the land, flattening, smoothing, leveling, filling, and/or removing excess soil. Its execution is defined by serious norms that have been perfected for decades. There are historical records that this technique was performed even in ancient Egypt and by the Babylonian peoples.
How is the earthwork done?
Although it seems like a simple process, a complex analysis of the terrain is necessary, needing to resort to a professional to assess the site and advise on the best excavation method to be performed. You can choose to:
- Excavation – where only the soil is removed;
- Grounding – placing land on the ground;
- Cutting – excavation of portions of land from a given location to obtain a leveler area or fill another area;
- Drainage – Adequate flow of fluids;
- Displacement – removal of leftover garbage, trees, or plants;
- Demolition – Demolition of existing construction;
- Soil compaction – road rollers to give stability to the ground
Which machines are mostly used in excavation?
The hydraulic excavator for excavation is used as heavy equipment to excavate materials, being indicated for experienced operators.
The excavation loader is a piece of equipment equipped with a shovel, for loading, in its front. It can be used for excavating or loading materials. It is generally used for large volumes of materials.
The backhoe for excavation is used for small excavation services or construction site maintenance; it is the right machine for digging ditches and loading small trucks.
The compaction roller for excavation checks the soil density, that is, compacts. They can be: vibrating, tire (or pneumatic), and static (or tamping type).
The excavation grader is used for fine finishes and shallow cuts, both for its precision of cut and fill. It optimizes the services of preparation of construction sites, cleaning the road, constructing dams, and opening roads.
The bulldozer for excavation will be equipped with specific attachments to assist service demands.
How to do the earthwork correctly?
The professional specialized in the area will evaluate the soil, its vegetation, and the land’s size. It will also indicate what must be done and which heavy machines will be necessary to carry out the work. Choosing the wrong machinery can hinder the location and the development of the work.
Although some machines clean the environment during earthwork, the first step to be indicated is that cleaning the areas to be worked be provided, as dirt and organic material can delay and hinder the team’s work.