Ferromagnetic materials are materials that have permanent atomic magnetic moments that are capable of aligning themselves without the effect of an external field. There are a number of ferromagnetic materials that are divided into two categories or types. These two types of ferromagnetic materials are un-magnetized ferromagnetic material and magnetized ferromagnetic material. In this article, we are going to learn about these two types of ferromagnetic materials. Having said that, let’s get into it.
Types of Ferromagnetic Materials
Basically, there are two types of ferromagnetic materials –
1. Unmagnetized ferromagnetic material
In an unmagnetized ferromagnetic material, there are different domains formed by atoms. The magnetic moment of each of these domains inside the material has different directions. This is the reason why the material remains unmagnetized.
2. Magnetized ferromagnetic material
When an external magnetic field is applied to the domains of unmagnetized ferromagnetic material, the domains begin to align themselves in the direction of the external magnetic field. This happens because of the domain character of ferromagnetic material. Even by applying a small magnetic field, large magnetization can be achieved.
Some of the ferromagnetic materials are –
Iron was found in the crust of the earth and can be represented by the symbol Fe. It is a type of chemical element that has the color of iron silvery grey. The atomic number of iron in the periodic table is 26.
Many people have doubts and look for “is nickel ferromagnetic” on the internet. Well, the answer is yes, nickel is a ferromagnetic material. It is also found in the crust of the earth and is represented by the symbol Ni. It has a silvery-white color. The atomic number of nickel in the periodic table is 28.
Chromium dioxide (CrO2) is also called Chromium (iv) oxide and is insoluble in water. It is also known by the names Carolyn and magtrieve and was discovered by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin.
Gadolinium is a type of chemical element that is represented by the symbol Gd. The atomic number of gadolinium in the periodic table is 64.
Terbium is also a chemical element that can be represented by the symbol Tb.
Dysprosium is a ferromagnetic material that was found in 1886 by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran. This material has the atomic number 66 in the periodic table.
Cobalt was invented in 1739 by Georg Brandt. This ferromagnetic material is found in the crust of the earth, like nickel and iron. The atomic number of cobalt is 27 in the periodic table and can be represented by the symbol CO.
Neodymium magnet is a strong and permanent magnet that has a silvery-white color. It is also called NIB or Neo, or NdFeB magnet. The chemical formula of the neodymium magnet is Nd2Fe14B, and this magnet was invented by Carl Auer von Welsbach.
Advantages of ferromagnetic materials
Ferromagnetic materials are used in industries for various purposes, thanks to the number of advantages they have. Some of the main advantages are –
- They have high resistance
- They are cheap
- Their hysteresis loss is low
- They have high permeability
- Their coercivity is low
- They have good stability
- They have a high electrical resistivity